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Descent from the Cross

Middle Byzantine
Second half of 10th century
17.1 cm x 13 cm x 0.9 cm (6 3/4 in. x 5 1/8 in. x 3/8 in.)

On view


Additional Images
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Additional Image Detail, bottom edge
Detail, bottom edge
Additional Image Detail, Christ and Joseph of Arimathaea
Detail, Christ and Joseph of Arimathaea
Additional Image Detail, John and Nicodemus
Detail, John and Nicodemus
Additional Image Detail, Mary
Detail, Mary
Additional Image Reverse

Interpreting a scene that is mentioned in all four Gospels (Matthew 27: 57-59; Mark 15: 44-46; Luke 23: 52-53; John 19: 38-40), the Deposition of Christ, or Descent from the Cross, is rendered with far more detail than is recorded in the texts. Joseph of Arimathea lowers the dead Christ from the cross, as Nicodemus loosens the nails from his feet with a hammer and chisel. On the left, the grieving Mother of God holds Christ’s hand to her face while John the Evangelist watches from the right. The Gospels recorded this episode briefly, but later theologians, such as George of Nicomedia in the ninth century, elaborated on the theme, emphasizing the piety of Joseph and the suffering of Mary. The image captures a moment of extreme pathos, yet the gestures of the figures and the classicizing style of the carving give it a reserved character, partly because of traditional Christian teaching; for example, in the fourth century, John Chrysostom had discouraged displays of grief on the grounds that they betrayed a lack of faith in the Resurrection. From the tenth century, it became permissible to depict the sorrow of the Mother of God because it emphasized a fundamental doctrine of the faith, the humanity of Christ.

Unlike precious metals, which can be melted down for their bullion value, or bronze, which, like gold and silver, can be re-used, carved ivory is very limited in terms of secondary adaptation, a fact that has allowed a large number of examples to survive. The ones that do survive constitute an important class within Byzantine art. The density of ivory allowed its carvers to achieve virtuoso levels of craftsmanship, seen here in the delicate filigree of the baldachin and its supporting columns as well as in the sensitive modeling of drapery folds, for example, along the lower edge of Nicodemus's robe. The background is so thin that it is translucent when held up to light. Nevertheless, it has remained intact despite two large cracks on either side of Christ’s head. This carver has exploited the plastic qualities of the material in the imposing, statuesque figure of the Virgin, while still enlivening the composition with the dynamic gestures of both arms and legs of Joseph and Nicodemus.

- J. Hanson

F. Spitzer, La collection Spitzer. Antiquité--Moyen-âge--Renaissance, Vol. 1 (Paris, 1890), 36, no. 18.

E. Bonnaffé and E. Molinier, Catalogue des objets d'art et de haute curiosité antiques, du Moyen-Age & de la Renaissance, composant l'importante et précieuse Collection Spitzer, dont la vente publique aura lieu à Paris ... du ... 17 avril au ... 16 juin, 1893, Vol. 1 (Paris, 1893), 12, no. 53, pl. 3.

G. Migeon, "Collection de M. G. Chalandon," Les Arts (June 1905): 23-25.

Marquise de Ganay and S. d. Ricci, Exposition d'objets d'art du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance, tirés des collections particulières de la France et de l'étranger, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Hôtel de Sagan, May-June 1913 (Paris, 1914), 52-53, no. 103.

A. Goldschmidt and K. Weitzmann, Die byzantinischen Elfenbeinskulpturen des X.-XIII. Jahrhunderts, Vol. 2: Reliefs (Berlin, 1934), 46, no. 71, pl. 28.

The Dumbarton Oaks Collection, Harvard University (Washington, D.C., 1955), 106, 121, no. 232.

G. Millet, Recherches sur l'iconographie de l'évangile aux XIVe, XVe, et XVIe siècles: d'après les monuments de Mistra, de la Macédoine et du Mont-Athos (Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome 109, 2 ed.), (Paris, 1960), 477.

Byzantine Art, an European Art, exh. cat., Zappeion Exhibition Hall (Athens, 1964), 173, no. 76.

Handbook of the Byzantine Collection (Washington, D.C., 1967), 80, no. 280.

K. Weitzmann, Catalogue of the Byzantine and Early Mediaeval Antiquities in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection, Vol. 3. Ivories and Steatites (Washington, D.C., 1972), 65-69, no. 27, pl. 41 and colorpl. 7.

E. Coche de La Ferté, L'Art de Byzance (Paris, 1981), pl. 141.

A. Cutler, The Craft of Ivory : Sources, Techniques, and Uses in the Mediterranean World, A.D. 200-1400 (Publications / Dumbarton Oaks, Byzantine Collection 8), (Washington, D.C., 1985), 5 and passim, figs. 8, 27, 48.

———, The Hand of the Master: Craftsmanship, Ivory, and Society in Byzantium (9th-11th Centuries), (Princeton, 1994), 102, 186, 217, fig. 109.

H. C. Evans and W. D. Wixom, eds., The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, A.D. 843-1261, exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, March 11-July 6, 1997 (New York, 1997), 154, no. 100.

C. L. Connor, The Color of Ivory: Polychromy on Byzantine Ivories (Princeton, 1998), 85, no. 50.

G. Bühl, ed., Dumbarton Oaks: The Collections (Washington, D.C., 2008), 134, pl. p. 135.

Exhibition History
Paris, Croix-Rouge Française, "Exposition d'objets d'art du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance...Ancien hôtel de Sagan," 1913.

Athens, Zappeion Exhibition Hall, "Byzantine Art, an European Art," Ninth Exhibition of the Council of Europe," April 1 - June 15, 1964.

Washington, D.C., Dumbarton Oaks, "The Craft of Ivory," Oct. 22, 1985 - Jan. 6. 1986.

New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, A.D. 843 - 1261," March 11 - July 6, 1997.

Washington, D.C., Dumbarton Oaks, "Cross References," March 25 - July 31, 2011.

Acquisition History
Spitzer Collection, Paris.

Georges Chalandon Collection, Paris and Lyon.

Purchased from Galerie Les Tourettes S. A., Basel (through Otto Wertheimer, Paris), by Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C., September 1952.

Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Byzantine Collection, Washington, D.C.